Black Freedmen Are Indians Too!

Historically, the Creek “Nation” comprised a confederacy of separate towns, tribes, and peoples. Each town was a complete governmental unit in and of itself. One such tribe was the Yamassee who, according to a nineteenth century United States census report, was “one of a small number of isolated tribes, of dark complexion” reported to have been “immigrants from Africa prior to the European discovery of America.” To put this early observation by the United States Department of the Interior into context: different peoples with different cultural and racial backgrounds were “full−blood” Creeks, just as today we have different peoples with different cultural and racial backgrounds are “full−blood” Americans. In 1832, the United States forcibly removed the Creeks from their traditional homelands (Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina, and Florida) and sent them to live in what is now Oklahoma. The Creeks lived in Oklahoma in relative peace until the Civil War.

 At the conclusion of the Civil War, the United States government negotiated and signed a new treaty with the Creeks. The Treaty of 1866 − signed by my paternal great−great−great−grandfather, Cow Tom – among other things outlawed slavery in the Creek Nation and granted citizenship to those formerly enslaved by the Creek Nation.   From that point, all Creek citizens lived in relative harmony as one nation until the allotment era of 1898−1906. In fact, Creeks of African descents were an essential part of the Nation, and served in important and high positions throughout the Nation. Again consulting the 1894 U.S. Department of Interior census bulletin, we find that the Creek Nation was “alert and active…largely due to the negro element which fairly controls it.”

 Unfortunately the relative harmony within lived during the nineteenth century came to sudden halt with the passage of the Curtis Act in 1898. The Curtis Act allowed the United States government to destroy the Creek tribal government by taking away ownership of the land which had been held in common by the tribe and replacing it with individual ownership of 160 acres per Creek citizen. To accomplish the task of allotting the 160−acre parcels, Congress established the Dawes Commission to find, identify, and enroll all members of the Creek Nation eligible for an allotment.

 The Dawes Commission created two lists of members of the Creek Nation eligible for allotment: 1) the “Creek Roll” which was purportedly composed of Creek citizens with Creek blood; and 2) the “Freedmen Roll” which was purportedly a roll of those citizens of the Creek Nation who were formerly enslaved  Africans and devoid of any Creek blood. However, using the hypo−descent rule − which was the public  policy and practice at the turn of the century (if not today) that mandates “one−drop” of African blood makes a person African or Black − the Dawes Commission enrolled most Creeks of African descent (especially those with darker complexions) on the Freedmen Roll, regardless whether they or their ancestors were ever enslaved by the Creek Nation or how much “Creek” blood they actually possessed.

 However, it is the Creek (and Cherokee)  Nation that has decided voluntarily to rely on a known racist and flawed enrollment process to deny so−called Freedmen citizenship today. The Creek Nation, like the Cherokee’s, even had the audacity to claim that Freedmen do not possess any “Creek” blood, in stark contradiction to their own documents, U.S. History, and volumes of other scholarly and legal documents.


Damario Solomon-Simmons, Esq., M.Ed., is Of Counsel with Oklahoma’s Premier Full Service Law Firm, and served as co-counsel  for two Black Creek Freedmen in the consolidated cases of Graham v. Muscogee (Creek) Nation CV-2003-53 and Johnson v. Muscogee (Creek) Nation CV-2003-54.  The case lasted over three (3) years and concluded in a Plaintiff’s verdict after a nine (9) day trial. However, the victory was unjustly overturned by the Creek Supreme court a few months later.     Damario can be reached at on twitter @solospeakstruth or